Cancer Care

What is Cancer?

Cancer is when abnormalcells divide in an uncontrolled way. Some cancers may eventually spread into other tissues.

All cancers begin in cells. Cancer starts with changes in one cell or a small group of cells. Cells produce signals to control how much and how often the cells divide. If any of these signals are faulty or missing, cells might start to grow and multiply too much and form a lump called a tumour.

Cancer starts when gene changes make one cell or a few cells begin to grow and multiply too much. This may cause a growth called a tumour. Tumours (lumps) can be benign or cancerous (malignant). Benign means it is not cancer.

A primary tumour is the name for where a cancer starts.

Cancer can sometimes spread to other parts of the body - this is called a secondary tumour or a metastasis.

Healthy habits to reduce the risk of Cancer
  • Be physically active. Aim to get at least 150 active minutes a week.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Women should have no more than one alcoholic beverage a day; men should have no more than two.
  • Limit fast foods and processed foods high in fat, starches, and sugars.
  • Cut back on red and processed meats. Eat no more than three portions per week or 12 to 18 ounces total.
  • Fill your diet with whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and beans.
  • Practice safe sexual habits to avoid any disease which may lead to cancer.

Get regular screening in order to be always sure.

The more of these habits you adopt, the more you'll lower your risk of many types of cancer.

7 Tips to reduce risk of cancer

1. Avoid tobacco use
Using any type ot tobacco puts you on a collision course with cancer

2. Eat a healthy diet
Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, avoid obesity, limit processed meats

3. Avoid alcohol consumption
If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation

4. Maintain a healthy weight and be physcally active
Maintaining a healthy weight might lower the risk of various types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and kidney.

5. Get immunize
Cancer prevention includes protection from certain viral infections, Talk to your doctor about vaccination aganst.

6. Safe sexual practices
People who have HIV or AIDS have a higher risk of cancer of the anus, liver and lung. HPV is most often associated with cervical cancer.

7. Get regular screening
Ask your doctor about the best cancer screening schedule for you.

Foods During Cancer Treatment

Cancer patients struggle to maintain adequate nutrition because of loss of appetite, altered taste due to treatment, side effects like vomiting and diarrhoea.


  • Alcohol
  • Dairy
  • Deli meats and cheeses
  • Microwaved food
  • Pastries
  • Processed foods
  • Red meat
  • Sugar and artificial sweeteners
  • Wheat
  • Anything with artificial color or flavor


  • Eggs eggs in all forms
  • Nuts: nuts like almonds.
  • Peanut butter; These can be spread over toast or a roti
  • Cheese: Home-made cottage cheese (panger)
  • Sprouts: Sprouts like moong dal
  • Smoothies: By combining fruits like bananes and apples with milk

Main meals:
Unrefined flours bajra jowar, oats, brown rice etc.
Proteins: fish, lentils and beans, soybean, dairy products, peas (muttar), chickpeas (chana), lentils (dal), kidney beans fraimal.
Fruits and Green vegetables
A bowl of card in the form of raita can be added to every meal.

Drink plenty of water, fresh fruit juices, and lemon water to keep yourself hydrated all day.

Dealing with nausea and vomiting
A common side-effect of chemotherapy is nausea and vomiting.
Having smaller amounts of Choose foods, more which are quickly and easily digested.
Avoid Satty or deep-fried foods.
Choose foods that net have strong all, which could set up nausea.

Cancer Treatments Available Today

The goal of cancer treatment is to achieve a cure for your cancer, allowing you to live a normal life span. This may or may not be possible, depending on your specific situation. If a cure isn't possible, your treatments may be used to shrink your cancer or slow the growth of your cancer to allow you to live symptom free for as long as possible.

Many cancer treatments are available, Your treatment options will depend on several factors, such as the type and stage of your cancer, your general health, and your preferences. Together you and your doctor can weigh the benefits and risks of each cancer treatment to determine which is best for you.

Cancer treatment options include:

Surgery: The goal of surgery is to remove the cancer or as much of the cancer as possible.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells.

Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays or protons, to kill cancer cells. Radiation treatment can come from a machine outside your body (external beam radiation), or it can be placed inside your body (brachytherapy).

Bone marrow transplant: Your bone marrow is the material inside your bones that makes blood cells from blood stem cells. A bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, can use your own bone marrow stem cells or those from a donor
A bone marrow transplant allows your doctor to use higher doses of chemotherapy to treat your cancer. It may also be used to replace diseased bone marrow.

Immunotherapy: Also known as biological therapy, uses your body's immune system to fight cancer. Cancer can survive unchecked in your body because your immune system doesn't recognize it as an intruder. Immunotherapy can help your immune system ''see" the cancer and attack it.

Hormone therapy: Some types of cancer are fuelled by your body's hormones. Examples include breast cancer and prostate cancer. Removing those hormones from the body or blocking their effects may cause the cancer cells to stop growing.
Targeted drug therapy: Targeted drug treatment focuses on specific abnormalities within cancer cells that allow them to survive.

Cryoablation: This treatment kills cancer cells with cold. During cryoablation, a thin, wandlike needle (ciyoprobe) is inserted through your skin and directly into the cancerous tumor. A gas is pumped into the cryoprobe in order to freeze the tissue. Then the tissue is allowed to thaw. The freezing and thawing process is repeated several times during the same treatment session in order to kill the cancer cells.

Radiofrequency ablation: This treatment uses electrical energy to heat cancer cells, causing them to die, During radiofrequency ablation, a doctor guides a thin needle through the skin or through an incision and into the cancer tissue. High-frequency energy passes through the needle and causes the surrounding tissue to heat up, killing the nearby cells.

Taking Care of Mouth During Cancer Treatment

Oral health side effects can be caused by chemotherapy, radiation, pain medications and other prescriptions used in the fight against cancer.

Be aware of sugar and acid
Sugary or acidic foods and drinks can cause numerous oral health problems. You may be advised to suck on hard candies or popsicles during treatment to prevent some side effects. Try sugar-free, low acidity options when possible. Keep in mind that many beverages contain added sugar, and even sugar -free and all-natural varieties may be high in aid. As o general rule of thumb, rinse your mouth with water as soon as possible after eating or drinking.

Diet matters
Try to eat foods that use soft, moist and high in protein and take small bites, chewing slowly and sipping liquids with meals. Avoid sharp, crunchy foods, like chips, that could scrape or cut your mouth. If you experience tooth sensitivity or mouth sores, ovoid extremes - like spicy, hot, cold, dry or salty. Limit your intake of milk, as it may produce thick solid. Serve food worm, not hot, to avoid burning your mouth.

Healthy bones, healthy teeth
Foods rich in Vitamin D and calcium can help your Ow and teeth stay strong. If you need to avoid dairy products, try fortified beverages and cereals. Ask your doctor if supplements ore good options for you.

Stay hydrated
Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day - between 8 and 12 glasses - and limit alcohol. If you drink beverages other than water, rinse your mouth with water afterwards. Check with your doctor to see if you need to limit caffeine intake as well.

Moist mouth
Drinking water throughout the day can help with dry mouth and other complications. Apply lip balm/moisturizer as needed. Suck on sugar-free tart, hard candies. Use a cool-mist humidifier at night. Ask your doctor or dentist about products like moisturizing gels and who substitutes if problems persist.

Practice optimal oral hygiene
Brush your teeth 2-3 times a day, including after meals and before long periods of sleep. Use an extra soft bristle toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste,, and gently brush your gums and tongue along with your teeth. Carefully floss at least once a day, as

Myths & facts
about Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy treatment has progressed profoundly in the last 30 years, but common knowledge what chemotherapy entails hasn't quite caught up to the realities. Serval cancer expert have shared the most common myths- and truth - about chemotherapy that they encounter in their practices.

Every cancer patient who undergoes chemotherapy experience complete hair loss.

FACT: Not all chemotherapy drugs trigger hair falls in patient. Different chemotherapy drugs have separate mechanism to curb the proliferation of tumor cells in the case of different cancers.

Both men and women are not able to reproduce after chemotherapy.

FACT: New advance in the field of medical technology now allow patients to conceive successfully after chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy can be avoided for there are plenty of other advanced cancer treatment option too.

FACT: This is in fact true. There are row plenty of alternatives to chemotherapy ranging from Immunotherapy to Radiation Therapy.

An oncologist advice chemotherapy only in the case of worst cancers.

FACT: This is in fact true. There are row plenty of alternatives to chemotherapy ranging from Immunotherapy to Radiation Therapy.

Nausea and vomiting are two prominent chemotherapy side effects.

FACT: Patient are prescribed a few medicines just before chemotherapy. These medicines work by suppressing chemo side effects such as nausea and vomiting.

Chemotherapy drugs are administrated through intravenous (IV) infusions that require a hospital stay.

FACT: IV infusion is just one of the modes through which the chemotherapy drugs are administrated. Not all drugs require the pat ent to stay at hospital for IV nfusion.

Chemotherapy cost are almost the same for the treatment of all types of cancers.

FACT: Not all chemotherapy drug cost the same around the world and or within a country. Chemotherapy cost differ from one country to another and from city to the other.

What is

Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body.

Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body.

Many different chemotherapy drugs are available. Chemotherapy drugs can be used alone or in combination to treat a wide variety of cancers.

Though chemotherapy is an effective way to treat many types of cancer, chemotherapy treatment also carries a risk of side effects. Some chemotherapy side effects are mild and treatable, while others can cause serious complications.

What is Radiation

Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as Xrays or protons, to kill cancer cells. Radiation treatment can come from a machine outside your body (external beam radiation), or it can be placed inside your body (brachytherapy).

Your cells normally grow and divide to form new cells. But cancer cells grow and divide faster than most normal cells. Radiation works by making small breaks in the DIMA inside cells. These breaks keep cancer cells from growing and dividing and cause them to die. Nearby normal cells can also be affected by radiation, but most recover and go back to working the way they should.

Radiation therapy can be given in 3 ways:
External radiation (or external beam radiation): uses a machine that directs high-energy rays from outside the body into the tumor. It's done during outpatient visits to a hospital or treatment center. It's usually given over many weeks and sometimes will be given twice a day for several weeks. A person receiving external radiation is not radioactive and does not have to follow special safety precautions at home.
Internal radiation: Internal radiation is also called brachytherapy. A radioactive source is put inside the body into or near the tumor. With some types of brachytherapy, radiation might be placed and left in the body to work. Sometimes it is placed in the body for a period of time and then removed. This is decided based on the type of cancer. Special safety precautions are needed for this type of radiation for a period of time. But it's important to know if the internal radiation is left in the body, after a while it eventually is no longer radioactive.
Systemic radiation: Radioactive drugs given by mouth or put into a vein are used to treat certain types of cancer. These drugs then travel throughout the body. You might have to follow special precautions at home for a period of time after these drugs are given.

Side effects of radiation therapy:
Your radiation doctors plan treatments very carefully to lessen side effects. While some patients have little or no side effects from radiation therapy, others feel some discomfort. Side effects are usually short-term and can be treated. Side effects most often start by the second or third week of treatment. They can last up to several weeks after your final radiation treatment. Many people who get radiation have some fatigue and skin reactions. Based on the area of your body being treated, you may also have some:

  • Hair loss
  • Appetite changes
  • Mouth and throat changes
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Swelling
  • Coughing
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Urinary and bladder changes
  • Sexual changes

Most side effects go away within 1-2 months after you have finished radiation therapy.

Significant Stages
in Cancer

When a patient diagnosed with cancer, doctor will tell what stage it is.
That will describe the size of the cancer and how far it's spread.

Stage 0 means there's no cancer, only abnormal cells with the potential to become cancer. This is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I means the cancer is small and only in one area. This is also called early-stage cancer.

Stage II and III mean the cancer is larger and has grown into nearby tissues or lymph nodes.

Stage IV means the cancer has spread to other parts of your body. It's also called advanced or metastatic cancer.

Early Signs of Cancer to Look Out For

Generally, cancer symptoms are not exclusive and could be a sign of other harmless medical conditi as well. But, if these symptoms exist for longer period, it is advisable to seek help of a medical profes

Unusual weight loss
Usually, people affected with cancer of the pancreas, stomach, oesophagus or lung observe absurd we loss as an early symptom.

Fatigue in Spite of Proper Rest
As cancer grows, it exhausts the nutrients in your body and causes blood loss in cases of colon or stoma cancer, resulting in an extended period of weakness.

Due to cancer's effects on immunity, fever is a common symptom and one of the early signs of blood cance like leukaemia or lymphoma.

Unbearable Pain
Normally, when cancer spreads, headaches and backaches are observed which could be early symptoms of brain tumour and cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary respectively.

Visible Skin Changes
Yellowing of eyes or fingertips, changes in moles, reddened skin, and itching are few changes on your skin that might suggest cancer.

Other warning signals of cancer

  1. A change in bowel or bladder habits
  2. A sore that does not heal
  3. Unusual bleeding or discharge
  4. Thickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere
  5. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
  6. Obvious change in a wart or mole
  7. Nagging cough or hoarseness

Along with those, if you come across any unexplained symptom that stays for a longer duration, consult your doctor to gain clarity at the earliest.

Stages of Breast Cancer

Abnormal cells in duct lining or sections of the breast. Increased risk of developing cancer in one or both breasts.

Cancer in breast tissue. Tumor is less than one inch across in size.

Cancer in breast tissue. Tumor is less than two inches across in size. Cancer may spread to the auxiliary lymph nodes.

Tumor is larger than two inches across in size and cancer has spread to auxiliary lymph nodes. Possible dimpling, inflammation or skin color change.

Cancer has spread beyond the breast to other nearby areas of the body.